Linguaculture, Volume 2, Number 2, 2011
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 


David WORRALL
Nottingham Trent University, UK

Abstract & Keywords

This paper will consider the connections between different types of theatre and theatricality under conditions of war in Philadelphia in 1778 during the British occupation. 1 The ethical cleansing of the title refers to the Mischianza, the giant medieval tournament and naval regatta on the Delaware organized by the British on the eve of their departure in May 1778. Staged theatre, improvised by the personnel of both sides with army and navy soldiers performing texts from the regular British 18th-century dramatic repertoire, was also a feature common both to the winter encampment in Valley Forge and to the British in their conventional theatre in Philadelphia. The Mischianza was an extension of these types of theatricals. What I will be arguing is that a study of the connections between theatre, performance and theatricality allows us to model the disparate forces at work in a society experiencing the irreversible social and political changes of war. The kinds of theatrical modelling I am suggesting will attempt to describe a distributed, dialogic, set of performance inscriptions out of which Philadelphia emerged as an urban space in the post- colonial phase. In short, both the theatricals on both sides, the Mischianza included, were attempts at territorializing space, inscribing ownership, allegiance and cultural value through the repetition of performance. The most promising theoretical model for analyzing these complex cultural interactions arises from the synthesizing the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in Manuel DeLanda in A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity.
Keywords: theatre, war-time military theatricals, 18th-century drama, the Mischianza

Georgina K. LOCK
Nottingham Trent University, UK

Abstract & Keywords

This essay investigates three women’s cross-dressed service in the military. Hannah Snell (1723-92) served as a British marine and fought the French in India. Deborah Sampson Gannet (1760-1827) fought the British in the American Wars of Independence and Pauline Cushman (1833-1893) claimed to have dis guised herself for the Union during the American Civil War. These three are, by no means, the only women to claim action and remuneration as male combatants (Jelinek 53-62), when the legal extent of women’s engagement was as unpaid camp followers. However, all three gave accounts of their military exploits to the public through biographies and solo performances on stage.
Keywords: women, soldier, heroine, nation, commemoration, performance

Lucia OPREANU
Ovidius University, Constanta, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

While lacking the physical explicitness of other contemporary British novels, Graham Swift’s texts are at least of equal interest in terms of the attention paid to the numerous face(t)s of violence, as well as to the deep if not always detectable marks imprinted on the victims. The centrality of the terrorist bomb attack to the plot of Out of This World singles out Swift’s fourth novel for special attention as regards the idea of violence and even a superficial reading yields ample material, from the historical background of war and the detailed presentation of major campaigns of the twentieth century to the personal history of its protagonists. This paper aims to trace the different reactions to and manifestations of violence across three generations, then focus on the frequent philosophical disquisitions on the main topic of the text, before moving on to Waterland and its intricate palimpsest of bruises upon bruises, hissing guillotines, revenge, murder, suicide, madness and guilt.
Keywords: history, photography, murder, trauma, verbal violence, war, weapon, wound

Oana COGEANU
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

The final novel of Alice Walker’s African trilogy, Possessing the Secret of Joy (1992), stands out within Walker’s writing as the literary text that comes closest to political activism. This paper aims at analyzing the inscription of/on the African woman’s body in Possessing the Secret of Joy by close reading the major episodes in the novel related to the experience of female circumcision in Africa and the search for psychological healing in Europe and the United States. The analysis suggests that Alice Walker constructs two archetypes of female complicity with patriarchy, “the betraying mother” and “the betrayed daughter”, and has them destroy themselves and each other because of their belief in, and questioning of, ritual female circumcision. The paper highlights that the novel’s campaign against this problematic aspect of traditional African culture represents a serious literary and political challenge, contributing to a demystification of romanticized African-American representations of Africa.
Keywords: Alice Walker, “Possessing the Secret of Joy”, female circumcision, Africa, patriarchy, womanism

Anca-Luisa VIUSENCO
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

We live in a world in which both virtual and actual violence are capitalized on as sources of entertainment, in which the media is so saturate d with violence that we need it to offer us ever-increasing doses of the latter so that we can exit our state of moral numbness and react, in which even the most horrific acts of violence leave most of us passive, since we regard them as nothing more than signs of our troubled times. Consequently, both recognizing and taking a stand against the subtle forms in which violence manifests itself have, unfortunately, become real challenges. As a result, I chose as starting-point for the present paper Alice Walker’s “The Flowers”, a literary piece in which violence is not presented overtly, but only suggested, and not experienced, but witnessed, and only through its unfortunate outcome – death. The present paper follows Myop’s transition from the state of innocence to that of awareness, dwelling on the powerful imagery of the story, and discusses the effects of witnessing violence or its outcomes upon young minds.
Keywords: violence, death, innocence, intolerance, rite of passage

Irina CHIRICA
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

The paper traces the history of “conquered landscape” back to the original European colonists and the Puritans. We discuss the contribution of Thomas Jefferson as an architect of Western expansion through the purchase of the Louisiana territory and the mapping of future policy regarding the settling of Western territory. We cover the major moments in the settling of the West and their historic significance. We discuss Frederick Jackson Turner’s concept of the West as “a succession of frontiers” versus revisionist historian Patricia Nelson Limerick’s concept of conquest and conquered territory. The second part of the paper deals with the Native American view of the land, with reference to Paula Gunn Allen’s ideas and Leslie Marmon Silko’s novels Ceremony and Almanac of the Dead. Silko juxtaposes two different kinds of space, Native American versus federal space. The Native American and Anglo-American views of nature are contrasted and explained, with the discussion of aspects of native removal, reterritorialization and misrepresentation.
Keywords: Western expansion, environment despoliation, reinscribed borders, reterritorialization

Gianina ROMAN
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

The aim of this paper is to analyse of the function (s) of violence in Cormac McCarthy’s novel No Country for Old Men as well as in its 2007 highly praised screen adaptation. The analysis of the use of violence in these works starts from the premises of the embedded, inherent violence of the western genre, seeking to speculate on its contemporary developments and adjustments as well as on its conflicting conventions. “Collapse” seems to be the leitmotif of the novel a s it defines both the structure and the substance of this modern western that, infused with elements of detective fiction – an unsolved crime, moral ambiguity, violence, and an action-driven narrative, epitomizes the urban shift of the genre. The paper will also briefly tackle issues connected to the conventions of the western genre so as to delineate a context for the centrality of stark violence in the modern western.
Keywords: myth, western, violence, masculinity, deconstruction, collapse

Mihaela MUDURE
Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

The aim of this paper is to analyze trauma as constructed in a corpus of texts identified as Romanian-American literature. More precisely, we have focused on the violence of departure from Romania and the violence of adaptation to America in the novel Train to Trieste by Domnica Rădulescu, in Petru Popescu’s The Deputy, and in Alta Ifland’s collection of short stories Elegy for a Fabulous Land. All these writers were born in Romania and were confronted with totalitarianism and its impositions upon individual identity. For many years escape was the main target of their identity politics.
Keywords: trauma, Communism, post-Communism, exile, Ceauşescu

Ilinca-Miruna DIACONU
University of Bucharest, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

This paper examines three dimensions of symbolic violence within a totalitarian state (the elimination of individuality, the preclusion of a sense of community, and the disappearance of the boundary between oppressor and oppressed), which can be identified in two historical cases, the Nazi concentration camp and the Piteşti experiment, as well as in the 1984 Georgian film Repentance by Tengiz Abuladze.
Keywords: Symbolic violence, the Lager, political persecution, the Piteşti experiment, the film Repentance

Daniela DOBOŞ
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania

Abstract & Keywords

For a long time, with few exceptions, Romanian linguistics took no interest in native slang, but after 1990 this has made a dramatic comeback in more than one way. One of the crudest versions of new slang, with touches of violence and licentiousness, turning the unsayable into sayable, is that currently used by young Romanians. It has been justly argued that such linguistic outlet came as a logical consequence, after the demise of communism, of the former censorship and wooden tongue. The paper sets out to put this oft-deplored linguistic phenomenon into perspective and analyse the main linguistic means employed in shaping it up.
Keywords: slang; subculture; violence; licentiousness